24 August 202116:50

Nizhny Novgorod Region

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Geographical location

 

The Nizhny Novgorod region occupies a geographically advantageous area situated in the centre of the European part of Russia (the Eastern European Plain), 400 km to the east of Moscow, at the confluence of the two largest rivers – the Volga and the Oka.

In the north-west the region borders on the Kostroma Region, in the north-east – on the Kirov Region, in the east – on the Mari El Republic and the Chuvashia Republic, in the south – on the Mordovia Republic, in the south-west – on the Ryazan Region, in the west – on the Vladimir and Ivanovo regions.

 

Territory

 

The territory of the region is 76.6 thousand square kilometers. The region is stretched out in the east-west direction (the widest part in the south is around 300 km), in the north-south direction it is stretched out for more than 400 km.

The northern boundary of the Russian black soil belt passes through the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The northern lands of the region are situated in the boreal forest zone; the southern lands are occupied with mixed and broad-leaved forests along with large meadow steppe areas.

The Volga River divides the region into two parts: the left bank lowland – Zavolzhie, and the right bank highland, which is hilly and cut by beams and ravines.

 

Climate

 

The Nizhny Novgorod Region is situated in the temperate continental climate zone. Winter is cold, long and snowy, average temperature in January – 12 degrees centigrade below zero; summer is relatively warm, average temperature in July – 19 degrees centigrade above zero. The central and southern areas are warmer. Average rain capacity – 500−550 mm per year.

 

Ecology and environmental protection

 

The Nizhny Novgorod region is one of the largest forest regions of the European part of the Russian Federation; more than 50% of the territory is occupied by forests.

The state natural biosphere reserve «Kerzhensky» (47 thousand hectares) was established in the Nizhny Novgorod Region in 1993 to preserve and restore biological diversity and integrity of indigenous types of local natural communities.

In the region there are: 15 state reserves of regional importance with an area of more than 270 thousand hectares, 1 natural monument of federal importance and 384 natural monuments of regional importance.

 

Population

 

The Nizhny Novgorod Region population (as of January 1, 2021) is 3 million 176 thousand 552 people, population density: 41.5 people per 1 square kilometer, urban population: 79.8%.

National composition (according to the 2010 census): Russians (95.1%), Tatars (1.4%), Mordovians (0.6%), Ukrainians (0.5%), other ethnic groups (2.4%).

 

The administrative centre of the region is Nizhny Novgorod with population about 1 million 244 thousand 254 people (as of January 1, 2021). The largest regional cities are: Dzerzhinsk (227.3 thousand people), Arzamas (103.3 thousand people), Sarov (96.4 thousand people), Bor (76.7 thousand people), Pavlovo (56.1 thousand people), Vyksa (52.8 thousand people), Balakhna (48.1 thousand people).

 

Administrative-territorial system

 

The Nizhny Novgorod Region is a part of the Volga Federal District. The region includes 368 municipalities, among them are: 15 urban districts, 11 municipal districts, 26 municipal areas, 51 urban settlements, and 265 rural settlements.

 

Heads of executive and legislative bodies, political parties in office

 

The regional executive body is represented by the Government of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The Governor of the Nizhny Novgorod Region acts as the head of the region and the Chairman of the Government.

 

Governor of the Nizhny Novgorod Region Gleb Sergeevich Nikitin, was appointed to the position on September 26th, 2018.

 

Contact information: tel.: +7 (831) 439-04-98, 430-96-39. Postal address: Kremlin, building 14, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603082. Website: www.government-nnov.ru.

 

The regional legislative body is represented by the Legislative Assembly of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. It is headed by Evgeny Borisovich Lyulin, who was elected as the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly of the Nizhny Novgorod Region on October 29, 2020.

 

Contact information: tel.: +7 (831) 439-05-38, 439-03-02. Postal address: Kremlin, building 2, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 603082. Website: www.zsno.ru.

 

According to the Sixth Legislative Assembly elections in 2016, there are 4 political parties in office: «United Russia» – 82% (ruling party); Communist Party of the Russian Federation – 8%; Russian Liberal-Democratic Party – 6%; Social-Democratic Party «Fair Russia» – 4%.

 

History

 

In 1221 the Russian Grand Duke Yury Vsevolodovich decided to strengthen a strategic point along the state boundary at the Oka River creek and founded there the city of Nizhny Novgorod.

Up to 1425 it existed as the Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal Grand Duchy, which finally was included in the Grand Duchy of Moscow. As the management of the territories was carried out on the basis of localism, the surroundings eventually entered Nizhny Novgorod and together they formed the Nizhny Novgorod county.

 

The regional reform of Peter I in 1708 resulted in including Nizhny Novgorod with the surrounding lands in the Kazan governorate. But soon, in 1714 Peter I edited a decree which restored the city’s sovereignty and created the Nizhny Novgorod governorate. Peter I wrote: «The Nizhny Novgorod governorate is to be separate».

 

As a constituent part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic the Nizhny Novgorod Region was declared on January 14, 1929. On June 15, 1929, the Nizhny Novgorod Region was given more lands and transformed into the Nizhny Novgorod Territory. In 1932 the Nizhny Novgorod Territory was given the name of the soviet writer Maksim Gorky – the Gorky Territory. In 1936 the Gorky Territory lost the Mari and Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and it was transformed again into the Gorky Region. After the Soviet Union disintegrated, on October 22, 1990, the Gorky Region was renamed as the Nizhny Novgorod Region.

 

Economic and social situation, place of the region in the Russian Federation economic system

 

The average income in the Nizhny Novgorod Region as of 2020 is 33,3 thousand rubles per person. Living wage as of 2020 is 10,4 thousand rubles per person. Level of registered unemployment – 3.2%. The Nizhny Novgorod Region is a large industrial centre with high technology industries as a driving force of development.

 

Economic indicators:

 

Indicator

Amount by the Nizhny Novgorod Region, billion rubles

Gross Regional Product, 2019

Gross Regional Product, 2020 (guess value)

1621,9

1595,0

Shipping Volume in industrial activity

(at full circle enterprises)

1423,3

(decrease of 6,6%)

Shipping Volume in manufacturing activity, 2020

1289,3

(decrease of 7,2%)

Retail Turnover, 2020

756

(decrease of 7,2%)

Foreign Trade Turnover, 2020

7,8 billion dollars

(decrease of 6,6%)

Capital Investment, 2020

383,1

(increase of 20,6%)

 

 

Accounting for more than a third of the gross regional product, industry plays a fundamental role in the economy of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Industry comprises about 600 large and medium-sized industrial enterprises, as well as about 50 branch-wise research institutes and engineering departments.

The index of production at full circle enterprises, as of 2020 is 93.4%, at manufacturing – 92.8%.

The strategic export areas are: machinery, ground means of transportation, petrochemicals, chemicals, ferrous metals products, plastics, fats and oils of animal and vegetable origin and medical equipment.

The main promising export destinations are: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, China, the Netherlands, Turkey and Finland. The specific organization for supporting export activities in the Nizhny Novgorod Region is the autonomous nonprofit institution «Export Development Centre of the Nizhny Novgorod Region» (http://export-nn.ru), director – Sergey Vladimirovich Zvonkov.

Postal address: 603005, Nizhny Novgorod, Piskunova St. 8/8, entrance 2, room 9. Actual address: Nizhny Novgorod, Academician Sakharov Str., 4, room 525,

tel.: +7 (831) 435-18-48.

 

External trade

 

At the end of 2020, the region’s foreign trade turnover has amounted to $ 7.8 billion. Particularly, exports have amounted to 63% ($ 4.9 billion), while imports have reached 37% ($ 2.9 billion).

The part of external turnover of the Nizhny Novgorod Region in the external trade of the Volga Federal District has amounted to 17%.

The trade balance is positive – $ 1.96 billion. The turnover with far-abroad countries at the end of 2020 has reached $ 6 billion. Exports have amounted to $ 3,3 billion, while imports have reached $ 2,7 billion.

The turnover with near-abroad countries (including CIS countries, Abkhazia and South Ossetia) at the end of 2020 has reached $ 1,9 billion. Exports have amounted to $ 1.6 billion; imports have reached $ 0,3 billion.

At the end of 2020, the Nizhny Novgorod Region has been dealing with 140 foreign partners. The main foreign trade partners: Bangladesh (12%), China (11%), Belarus (10%), India (7%), Germany (6%), Ukraine (5%), Kazakhstan (4%), the Netherlands (4%), Italy (4%), Belgium (4%).

The main exporting partners: Bangladesh (19%), Belarus (12%), India (10%), China (8%), Ukraine (7%), Kazakhstan (6%), the Netherlands (6%), Belgium (4,5%), Uzbekistan (4%), Poland (3%).

The main importing partners: China (15%), Germany (13%), Italy (10%), Belarus (7%), France (6%), Czech Republic (4%), Poland (3%), Republic of Korea (3%), Ireland (3%), USA (2%).

 

International Relations, Agreements with Foreign Partners

 

Due to the spread of coronavirus infection in 2020, many international events have been canceled or postponed to 2021. At the same time, the Department of International Relations organized and carried out more than 50 unscheduled events.

In 2020, 19 foreign delegations visited the Nizhny Novgorod Region, including visits by four Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassadors of foreign states to the Russian Federation: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Uzbekistan and Japan. In total, the delegations which visited the region during 2020 through the Government and local authorities of the Nizhny Novgorod region included about 200 people.

 

The region was visited by representatives of countries of near and far abroad, in particular Armenia, Afghanistan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Republic of Korea, USA, Uzbekistan, Finland, Japan.

Taking into account the pandemic of the new coronavirus infection, many events to expand foreign economic cooperation took place in the format of video conferencing.

In total, representatives of the Department of International Relations in 2020 took part in more than 30 events in the online format together with representatives of foreign partners (from Belarus, Bolivia, Germany, China, Cuba, Uzbekistan, Finland, Croatia, Czech Republic, Japan), and also in events organized by BRICS, federal authorities (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Ministry of Economic Development of Russia), authorities of the Nizhny Novgorod region and other Russian regions (St. Petersburg, Samara, Ulyanovsk regions), Nizhny Novgorod universities, the Organization of the international community of Nizhny Novgorod ICANN etc.

 

Currently, the Nizhny Novgorod Region has partners from 17 countries (Abkhazia, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, China, Moldova, Poland, Serbia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Finland, France, Czech Republic, Japan).

 

Between the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the regions of foreign states, the state authorities of foreign countries, there are more than 30 contractual documents on trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural cooperation. Currently, work is underway to prepare for the signing of an Agreement between the Government of the Nizhny Novgorod Region of the Russian Federation and the Governorship of Sakarya Province of the Turkish Republic, an Agreement on Cooperation between the Government of the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the People's Government of the city of central subordination Chongqing (China), and the possibility of concluding a Cooperation Agreement between The Government of the Nizhny Novgorod Region and the Government of the Sicily Region (Italian Republic). In April 2021, an Agreement was signed between the Government of the Nizhny Novgorod region and the Khokimiyat of the Kashkadarya region (Republic of Uzbekistan), as well as Memorandums of Intent for cooperation between the Government of the Nizhny Novgorod region and the Khokimiyats of the Tashkent and Bukhara regions (Republic of Uzbekistan).

 

Nizhny Novgorod has 17 sister cities: Essen (Germany), Philadelphia (USA), Linz (Austria), Jinan and Hefei (China), Tampere (Finland), Kharkov (Ukraine), Matanzas (Cuba), Suwon (Republic of Korea), Novi Sad (Serbia), Minsk (Belarus), Sant Boi De Llobregat (Spain), Sukhum (Abkhazia), Gyor (Hungary), Beltsy (Moldova), Dobrich (Bulgaria), Heraklion (Greece); 3 partner cities: Brno (Czech Republic), Leipzig (Germany), Wuxi (China).

 

Other municipalities of the region have signed 58 agreements on cooperation with 21 countries: Abkhazia, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Serbia, Spain, Ukraine and the USA.

 

The Branch of the Embassy of the Republic of Belarus to Russia in Nizhny Novgorod and 6 offices of honorary consuls (Abkhazia, Austria, France,Malta, Portugal and Slovenia) operate in the region as well as 8 foreign centers of such countries as China, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Japan, Serbia and Thailand.

 

Science and Education

 

As of 2020 11 universities and 15 branches had a valid license in the Nizhny Novgorod Region.

In total in the 2020-2021 academic year there have been studying about 92 thousand people at higher education institutions of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Among them there are about 4.8 thousand foreign students (increase by 3,6% in comparison with the number as of the 2019-2020 academic year) from 112 countries – 1 539 people from 16 CIS states and 3298 people from 96 far-abroad countries. The biggest number of foreign students has come from Egypt (808), Turkmenistan (780), India (421), Iraq (415), Uzbekistan (317) and China (312).

 

Culture, Local Traditions

 

The Nizhny Novgorod Region has always been famous for its crafts (more than 60% of crafts are concentrated in the region), ranking first in Russia in terms of the number of preserved folk art crafts. This is a unique experience throughout the country.

The Nizhny Novgorod Region is the birthplace of the famous Gorodets wooden painting. Among the most common subjects of the painting are festivities, tea parties, a horse with a rider, folk festivals. The painting is full of rich colors of Russian summer with its meadow motley grass, it is decorated with garlands of flowers and birds.

Gorodets pryanik – a sort of traditional sweet baked goods – is widely known. Fantastic birds, fabulous palaces, horsemen with sabers, horses, geese, roosters, fish, and later steamboats and locomotives used to be cut out on pryanik boards.

One of the largest centers of the filigree in Russia is the village of Kazakovo located in the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The first Kazakovo artel for the production of filigree articles was founded in 1939. CJSC «Kazakovo Enterprise of Artistic Products» continued the tradition and adopted skills of the artel.

Semyonov painting is a style of painting traditional for matryoshka dolls (nesting dolls) from the town of Semyonov of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. Matryoshka painting is characterized by a rather large area of unpainted wood, the use of aniline paints and a large-flowered apron painting. Painting of a matryoshka differs from the usual Khokhloma painting in the combination of colors and methods of painting.

 

Non-Governmental Organizations

 

According to the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Justice for the Nizhny Novgorod Region 3949 non-profit organizations (NGOs) including 1476 public organizations, 758 religious organizations, 7 Cossack societies are registered in the region.

 

Mass Media

 

There are 311 mass media registered in the Nizhny Novgorod Region among which 212 printed editions, 91 electronic mass media (33 TV channels, 10 TV programs, 43 radio channels, 5 radio programs), 8 news agencies. More than 15 federal media have their offices in Nizhny Novgorod.

 

Transport

 

Federal and regional highways pass through the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Region, the region is well placed geographically at the intersection of the two international transport corridors «West – East» and «North – South».

All the railways in the region belong to Gorky Railway (which is a subsidiary of the Russian Railways) headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. The main railway junctions are located in the territory of Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas. High-speed trains «Strizh», «Sapsan» and «Lastochka» travel between Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod.

In addition to a well-developed network of roads, the region has two potentially powerful transport hubs: Strigino International Airport (organization of regular international and regional flights) and a major river port that has access to the seas washing the European part of Russia via inland waterways and further access to the ports of the Baltic States, Western Europe, Africa and Asia.

Regular navigation is carried out on the Volga, Oka, Vetluga and Sura. The largest ports are Nizhny Novgorod, Gorodets, Bor and Kstovo.

The city of Nizhny Novgorod is a major transport hub of the region that provides stable cargo traffic in any direction, both in Russia and abroad.

 

Tourism

 

The Nizhny Novgorod Region is a great destination for various types of tourism: cultural and educational, recreational and medical, rural, business, event, adventure, cruise, ecotourism, hunting and fishing.

The historical and cultural heritage of the Nizhny Novgorod Region is represented by 3 539 historical, cultural and architectural monuments, 1 257 of which are monuments of federal significance. Among them are unique objects of historical, cultural and spiritual heritage: the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (XVI century), Zheltovodsky Makaryev Convent (XVII century), Holy Trinity-Saint Seraphim-Diveyevo Monastery (XIX century), etc.

In June-July 2018 Nizhny Novgorod hosted the FIFA 2018 World Cup which has appeared to be the largest international event in the history of the city.

From June 18th to July 6th the newly constructed stadium «Nizhny Novgorod» hosted games of the national teams of England, Argentina, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, France, Panama, the Republic of Korea, Switzerland, Sweden and Uruguay.